Exploring the Unknown: A Closer Look at Chandrayaan 3’s Objectives


Welcome cosmic enthusiasts! Get ready to embark on an exhilarating journey into the depths of our mysterious celestial neighbor – the Moon. In this captivating blog post, we will delve deep into the exciting realm of Chandrayaan 3’s objectives, shedding light on the enigmatic secrets it aims to unveil. So buckle up and join us as we explore uncharted territories, igniting your curiosity and making you fall in love with the wonders that lie beyond our earthly boundaries. Prepare yourselves for a mind-blowing adventure as we venture forth into the unknown!

Introduction to the Chandrayaan 3 Mission

The Indian Space Research Organisation’s Chandrayaan 3 mission is set to launch in late 2020 and will be India’s third lunar exploration mission. The primary objective of the Chandrayaan 3 mission is to demonstrate the capability to soft-land a rover on the lunar surface. In addition, the mission will also aim to conduct science experiments and further our understanding of the moon’s surface and environment.

The Chandrayaan 3 rover, named Vikram, will be equipped with scientific instruments to study the moon’s surface and environment. The data collected by Vikram will help us better understand the moon’s origins, composition, and internal structure. Additionally, the rover will search for water ice on the lunar surface – a key resource that could enable future human exploration of the moon.

With its advanced suite of scientific instruments, the Chandrayaan 3 mission will build on India’s previous lunar missions and contribute significantly to our understanding of our natural satellite.

What’s Different About Chandrayaan 3?

Chandrayaan 3 is the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) third lunar exploration mission. It follows in the footsteps of Chandrayaan 1, which was launched in October 2008, and Chandrayaan 2, which was launched in July 2019. While Chandrayaan 2’s lander Vikram did not make a successful landing on the moon, the orbiter successfully completed its mission. Chandrayaan 3 will build on the successes of its predecessors and attempt to achieve a soft landing on the moon’s surface.

The orbiter and lander of Chandrayaan 3 will be similar to those of Chandrayaan 2. However, the rover that was part of Chandrayaan 2 will not be included in this mission. Instead, ISRO plans to include a small Pragyan rover that will be deployed from the lander once it has landed on the moon’s surface. The Pragyan rover will have a maximum speed of 1cm/sec and a range of 500m. It is equipped with sensors that will allow it to analyse the composition of the lunar surface.

Chandrayaan 3 is also notable for being ISRO’s first entirely indigenous mission. All previous lunar missions have included components from other countries, but Chandrayaan 3 will use only Indian-made hardware and software. This includes the launch vehicle, orbiter, lander, and rover. ISRO hopes that this achievement will demonstrate

Mission Objectives and Overview

The Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft was launched on October 22, 2008, and operated until August 29, 2009. The objectives of the mission were to:

  1. Develop an understanding of the moon’s surface composition and mineralogy.
  2. Expand our knowledge of the moon’s topography.
  3. Determine the presence or absence of water ice on the moon’s surface.
  4. Study the lunar environment, specifically the moon’s exosphere and radiation budget.
  5. Test new technologies for future missions.

Chandrayaan-1 carried eleven scientific instruments from India, Europe, and the United States. These instruments were selected to achieve the mission objectives through a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements.

The Science Behind the Mission

Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first mission to the Moon. The spacecraft was launched on October 22, 2008, and operated until August 29, 2009. The mission was a success, and collected a wealth of data about the Moon.

The Science Behind the Mission

The Chandrayaan-1 mission had three scientific objectives:

To map the distribution of various elements and minerals on the lunar surfaceTo study the moon’s topographyTo study the moon’s tenuous atmosphere

The mapping objectives were achieved using a variety of techniques. The spacecraft carried two cameras, which were used to create high-resolution maps of the surface. Additionally, Chandrayaan-1 carried an imaging spectrometer, which analyzed the reflected sunlight to determine the chemical composition of the surface. The data from these instruments allowed scientists to create detailed maps of the distribution of different elements on the lunar surface.

The topographic studies were conducted using a laser altimeter. This instrument measured the distance between the spacecraft and the lunar surface with great precision. By combining these measurements with data from the cameras, scientists were able to create highly accurate maps of the lunar topography. These maps revealed new features such as small craters that had previously been undetected.

The studies of the moon’s atmosphere were conducted using two instruments aboard Chandrayaan-1. The first was a radiation dosimeter, which measured solar and cosmic radiation fluxes in the lunar environment. The second was an infrared spectrometer, which measured the concentrations of gas molecules in the moon’s tenuous atmosphere. This data allowed scientists to understand how these gases are distributed and how they change over time.

Overall, the Chandrayaan-1 mission provided crucial insights into the Moon’s geology, chemistry, environment, and topography. It was a major success for Indian space exploration and laid the foundation for future missions to our nearest neighbor in space.

Rockets Used in the Mission

Rockets are an essential part of any space mission – they provide the initial thrust to propel the spacecraft into orbit and are also used for mid-course corrections and fine tuning the trajectory. Chandrayaan-2 made use of two types of rockets – the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III).

The PSLV is an expendable launch vehicle that has been used for many Indian space missions, including Chandrayaan-1. It consists of four stages, using solid and liquid propulsion systems. The GSLV Mk III is a three-stage launch vehicle that uses cryogenic engines in its upper stage. It is capable of launching heavier payloads into higher orbits than the PSLV.

Chandrayaan-2 was launched on July 22, 2019 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, India. The PSLV provided the initial thrust to take the spacecraft into a low Earth orbit (LEO). From there, the GSLV Mk III took over and injected Chandrayaan-2 into a highly elliptical orbit around Earth with a perigee (closest approach to Earth) of 169 km and an apogee (farthest distance from Earth) of 35,898 km. This was known as a Transfer Trajectory and would eventually take Chandrayaan-2 to the vicinity of the Moon.

Expected Outcomes from the Mission

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has set several objectives for the Chandrayaan mission. The main objective is to map the entire surface of the Moon in high resolution, creating a three-dimensional atlas of the lunar terrain. This will be done using both imaging spectroscopy and stereo imaging. In addition, Chandrayaan will also look for evidence of water ice on the lunar surface and attempt to characterize the lunar environment.

Other objectives of Chandrayaan include studying the moon’s thin atmosphere, measuring the abundance of surface elements and minerals, and searching for evidence of lunar seismic activity. Ultimately, these studies will help scientists better understand the formation and evolution of our natural satellite.

Potential Challenges Faced by Chandrayaan 3

If India pushes ahead with its plan to launch Chandrayaan-3 in 2020, the mission will face a number of potential challenges.

First, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will need to overcome the technical difficulties that led to the loss of Chandrayaan-2’s lander, Vikram. ISRO has blamed the failure on a software glitch that caused Vikram to veer off course as it approached the moon’s surface.

Second, Chandrayaan-3 will need to be launched from a new launch site, as the current launch site at Sriharikota is being renovated for future missions. This could present logistical challenges and delays.

Third, Chandrayaan-3 will be carrying a heavier payload than its predecessor, which means it will require more fuel and a larger rocket. ISRO is currently working on developing a new heavy-lift rocket, but it is not clear if this will be ready in time for the 2020 launch window.

Chandrayaan-3 will face stiff competition from other lunar missions currently in development, including China’s Chang’e 5 and NASA’s Artemis program. These missions are well funded and have considerable experience; Chandrayaan-3 will need to prove itself worthy of investment if it is to succeed.


The Chandrayaan 3 mission promises to provide us with an unprecedented view of the unknown depths of our universe. This ambitious space exploration effort is set to begin its journey in 2022 and will undoubtedly uncover new knowledge from the surface and environment of the moon. By studying data collected by this mission, scientists hope to make groundbreaking discoveries regarding lunar geology and potential resources that could be utilized for space exploration ventures in the future. Without a doubt, this undertaking marks yet another milestone for humankind’s ongoing quest to explore uncharted regions and tap into their nearly endless potential.

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