Prostate Cancer 101: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the growing cancers among men, which can affect the life of individuals and their loved ones. The cancer generally develops slowly; however, early detection and treatment can help live a longer life. 

Cancer doesn’t affect only the patient but also people connected with their life. With millions of cancer cases every year, what has led to a high success rate in its treatment is the advancement and early diagnosis. Let’s look at prostate cancer treatment, symptoms, diagnosis,  and causes that will help you gain an insight into what you can do and expect from the advanced treatment options.

What Is Prostate Cancer? 

Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland of the male reproductive system. It is either non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous. The benign cancer cells do not grow and are not that dangerous to health. A malignant cancer results in a tumour causing harm to health and spreads to lymph nodes. Old-aged men are at risk of developing prostate cancer.


The leading prostate cancer causes of prostate cancer are:

  • Age 
  • Unhealthy Lifestyle 
  • Family history
  • Hormonal changes
  • Exposure to harmful chemicals


Early stage symptoms are difficult to identify and they may not be noticeable. However, some noticeable symptoms are:

Urinary Changes 

  • Changes in urination, like frequent urination, weak or interrupted urination, pain and blood in urination
  • Blood in semen
  • Discomfort or pain in the lower back, hips or thighs can be a dangerous sign as this indicates that the cancer cells have started to spread
  • Weight loss, fatigue or loss of appetite

If any of these symptoms are constant, consult a doctor and get the screening done. If it’s detected at an early stage, it can be treated and cured.


Diagnosis is crucial to determine the stage of cancer, its aggressiveness, and its stage so that a proper treatment plan can be made. Here are some common diagnosis methods used for prostate cancer,

  • Medical History and Physical Examination 

The doctor will ask about your family and medical history, they will ask if you’re facing any symptoms or any other relevant problems. After which they will examine your physical health condition through the digital rectal procedure to determine the condition of the prostate gland, like its size, shape, and texture.

  • Blood Test

A blood test is performed to check the prostate-specific antigen level. PSA is a protein produced by the prostate gland and high levels may indicate that the cancer has spread and further treatment is required.

  • Imaging Test

The transrectal ultrasound procedure is used to get images of the prostate gland and if the size is unusual, it may recommend further biopsy. MRI is also used to get clear images of the prostate gland and surrounding tissues that help in detection to identify areas for treatment.

  • Other Tests

To check whether cancer has spread to other organs or bones, a CT scan, PET scan or bone scan is performed.

All of the tests and scans are performed to determine the spread, size and aggressiveness of the tumour and help doctors determine the best treatment for particular conditions or cases.


With the advancing medical field, treating prostate cancer is not impossible. With so many treatment options available, patients can be given a new life. 

  • Surgery

There are two types of surgery for treatment – radical prostatectomy, where the entire prostate gland and surrounding tissues are removed and robotic-assisted surgery, which is recommended based on the patient’s health condition.

  • Radiation Therapy 

Radiation therapy is another option recommended by doctors. In external beam radiation, high beams of rays are directed towards the cancerous area to kill cancer cells. In Brachytherapy, radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate. 

  • Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy helps reduce the growth of cancer cells and involves reducing the androgen hormones that aggravate the growth of cancer cells.

Chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy are also used for treatment.

Leading a healthy lifestyle reduces the risk of most diseases. One should practise living a healthy life. Having a good knowledge of prostate cancer can help you identify symptoms, diagnose and receive treatment on time. A progressive life is much better than staying uninformed and ignoring all the problems. Take control of your life by identifying symptoms and treatment plans to make informed decisions.

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